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International Corpus of English (ICE)



In 1989, Namibia gained its independence from South Africa and elected to make English its official language. Several reasons were given for having made this choice over and above Afrikaans, the lingua franca at that time.  Since then English is used widely by different sections of the public: it is a  medium of instruction in all educational institutions in Namibia. English newspapers are available, both in print and online. It  is used in Parliament for discussions and debates. It is also used creatively with different genres of literature being written in English. It is in common currency in banks, shops and other establishments. In the academic circles, there are journals in scientific and  technical fields, as well as publications in humanities and social sciences.



Association of Namibian Publishers (1986) Language and Development in Southern Africa: Making the Right  Connections. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan.

Association of Namibian Publishers (1996) Publishing in Namibian languages.  In Legère, K. (ed.),  African Languages in Basic Education Windhoek:  Gamsberg Macmillan. pp. 80-9.

Barkhuizen, Gary P. & David Gough (Autumn 1996) Language Curriculum Development in South Africa: What Place for English? TESOL Quarterly vol. 30, no. 3: Language Planning and Policy, pp. 453-471.

Department of Education / Shape and Size of Higher Education Task Team, Council on Higher Education (2000) Towards a new Higher Education Landscape: Meeting the Equity, Quality and Social Developments Imperatives of South Africa in the 21st Century. Windhoek: Gamsburg Macmillan.

Eastman, Carol M. (Spring, 1990) What Is the Role of Language Planning in Post-Apartheid South Africa? TESOL Quarterly vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 9-21.

Harlech-Jones, B. (1998) Viva English!  Or is it time to review language policy in education?  ReformForum, 6, pp. 9-15.

Harlech-Jones, B.  (1990) You taught me language. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

Joseph, Lo Bianco (Summer 2003) Issues in the Making of South Africa's Language in Education Policy. The Modern Language Journal, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 286-8.

Legère, K. (ed.) (1996) African languages in Basic Education.  Windhoek:  Gamsberg Macmillan.

Pütz, Martin (ed.) (1995) Discrimination through Language in Africa? Perspectives on the Namibian Experience. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.


Online Newspapers

The Namibian
New Era


Weiterführende Informationen


The ICE Namibia project is based at the Polytechnic of Namibia. 



Dr Sarala Krishnamurthy
Dean, School of Communication
Polytechnic of Namibia
Private Bag 13388
13 Storch Street



Phone: +264 61 207 2402
Fax:     +264 61 207 2212