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International Corpus of English (ICE)



In Singapore, English is a co-official language together with Mandarin Chinese, Malay, and Tamil. It is the main language used in government, law, education, business, and international communication. Since 1987 English has become the sole teaching medium in primary, secondary, and tertiary education. A high percentage of the approximate 3.3 million population know English, to varying degrees. The variety can be broadly divided into two main forms, a standard variety close to RP-accented British English, and an informal colloquial variety influenced by Chinese and Malay, which is referred to as 'Singlish'.

Crewe, W. (ed.) (1977) The English Language in Singapore. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
Foley, J. (ed.) (1988) The New Englishes: The Case of Singapore. Singapore: University Press.
Platt, J. & H. Weber (1980) English in Singapore and Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Deterding, D. (2007) Singapore English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


Online Newspapers

The Straits Times

Online Radio Stations

MediaCorp Radio Singapore

Weiterführende Informationen


The Singapore component of ICE is based at the National University of Singapore.



Dr Anne Pakir,  
Dept. of English Language & Literature, National University of Singapore,  
Kent Ridge,  
Singapore 0511.